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Sodium hydroxide Chemical Properties
mp 681 °C(lit.)
bp 145 °C
density 1.515 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density <1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 745 °C)
refractive index 1,473-1,475
storage temp. 2-8°C
solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
Water Solubility SOLUBLE
Decomposition 176-178 ºC
Sensitive Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
CAS DataBase Reference 1310-73-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2)
EPA Substance Registry System Sodium hydroxide (Na(OH))(1310-73-2)
Product Specification / Models
Sodium hydroxide Usage And Synthesis
Chemical Properties White solid
General Description A white solid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, cleaning compounds, drain cleaners.
Air & Water Reactions Soluble in water. Dissolution can liberate enough heat to cause steaming and spattering and ignite adjacent combustible material [Haz. Chem. Data 1966].
Reactivity Profile CAUSTIC SODA (Sodium hydroxide) is a strong base. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with acids, both organic and inorganic. Readily absorbs moisture from the air to give caustic semi-solids that attack aluminum and zinc with the evolution of flammable hydrogen gas. Catalyzes the polymerization of acetaldehyde and other polymerizable compounds; these reactions can occur violently, for example, acrolein polymerizes with extreme violence when put in contact with alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide [Chem. Safety Data Sheet SD-85 1961]. Reacts with great violence with phosphorus pentaoxide when initiated by local heating [Mellor 8 Supp.3:406 1971]. Contact (as a drying agent) with tetrahydrofuran, which often contains peroxides, may be hazardous---explosions have occurred in such a use of the chemically similar potassium hydroxide [NSC Newsletter Chem. Soc. 1967]. Mixing with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: glacial acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acrolein, chlorohydrin, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene cyanohydrin, glyoxal, hydrochloric acid (36%), hydrofluoric acid (48.7%), nitric acid (70%), oleum, propiolactone, sulfuric acid (96%) [NFPA 1991]. Accidental contact between a caustic cleaning solution (probably containing sodium hydroxide) and Pentol caused a violent explosion. [MCA Case History 363(1964)]. Heating with a mixture of methyl alcohol and trichlorobenzene during an attempted synthesis led to a sudden increase in pressure and an explosion [MCA Guide for Safety Appendix 3 1972]. Hot and/or concentrated NaOH can cause hydroquinone to decompose exothermically at elevated temperature. (NFPA Pub. 491M, 1975, 385)
Health Hazard Strong corrosive action on contacted tissues. INHALATION: dust may cause damage to upper respiratory tract and lung itself, producing from mild nose irritation to pneumonitis. INGESTION: severe damage to mucous membranes; severe scar formation or perforation may occur. EYE CONTACT: produces severe damage.
Fire Hazard Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
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